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- Nasceu - 9/2/1909 Faleceu - 5/8/1955
Carmen Miranda was born in the small northern Portuguese town of Marco de Canaveses. She was the second daughter of José Maria Pinto Cunha (1887 - 1938) and Maria Emília Miranda (1886 - 1971). Shortly after her birth, her father, José Maria, emigrated to Brazil and settled in Rio de Janeiro (the then capital), where he opened a barber's shop. In 1910, her mother followed, together with her eldest daughter, Olinda, and Carmen. Carmen never returned to Portugal. Once in Brazil, her parents had further children, namely: Amaro (1911), Cecília (1913), Aurora (1915 - 2005) and Oscar (1916).
Carmen went to school at the Convent of Saint Therese of Lisieux. Her very Catholic parents did not approve of her dreams of pursuing show business, so she kept them secret for years. In her spare time, she often sang at parties and festivals around town. Carmen's sister, Olinda, contracted tuberculosis and returned to Portugal for treatment. Carmen got her first job, in a tie shop at age 14, to help pay for her sister's medical treatment. She later worked in a boutique, La Femme Chic, where she learned to make hats. In no time, she started her own small hat business which became quite profitable. Olinda, meanwhile, remained in Portugal until her death in 1931.
Carmen was eventually discovered and given the chance to perform on a local radio station. One thing led to another, and she pursued a career as a samba singer for 10 years before she was invited to New York City to perform in a show on Broadway. In Brazil, she was noted as a musical innovator, and was one of the first samba superstars long before her arrival in the United States. She also made six films in Brazil.
Carmen arrived in the United States in 1939 with her band, the Bando da Lua, and achieved stardom in the early 1940s. She was encouraged by the United States government in her American career as part of President Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy, designed to strengthen links with Latin America and Europe; it was believed that in delivering content like hers, the policy would be better received by the American public. She was the country's highest-paid entertainer for several years in the 1940s, and in 1945, was the highest-paid woman in the United States, earning more than $200,000 that year, according to IRS records.
Carmen made a total of 14 Hollywood films between 1940 and 1953. As a singer, she sold more than 10 million copies worldwide. She was given the nickname "The Brazilian Bombshell".
Carmen’s Hollywood image was one of a generic Latinness that blurred the distinctions between Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico as well as between samba, tango and habanera. It was carefully stylized and outlandishly flamboyant. She was often shown wearing platform sandals and towering headdresses made of fruit, becoming famous as "the lady in the tutti-frutti hat." At only 5 feet tall (152 cm), these accoutrements made her appear almost larger-than-life on screen.
She was well aware of the tensions in her career. During a visit to Brazil in 1940, she was heavily criticized for giving in to American commercialism and projecting a false image of Brazil. She responded with the Portuguese language song "Disseram Que Voltei Americanizada," or "They Say I've Come Back Americanized." Another song, "Bananas Is My Business," was based on a line in one of her movies and directly addressed her image. She was greatly upset by the criticism and did not return to Brazil again for 14 years.
Carmen did not drink or smoke until her late 30s. In addition to her addiction to alcohol and tobacco, Carmen regularly used amphetamines and barbiturates, all of which weakened her heart.
Carmen died of a heart attack following an appearance on The Jimmy Durante Show. The A&E Network Biography episode featuring Carmen Miranda contained the tragic kinescope footage from her August 4 appearance. After completing a dance number, Carmen unknowingly suffered a mild heart attack, and nearly collapsed. Durante was at her side, and helped keep her on her feet. Carmen then smiled, waved to the crowd, and walked offstage for the last time. "The Brazilian Bombshell" died by the following morning, at the age of 46.
The official cause of death given on her death certificate was from untreated toxemia (later known as pre-eclampsia), and heart failure stemming from a pregnancy. Her body was flown back to Brazil soon afterwards and the Brazilian government declared a period of national mourning. She was buried in the Cemitério São João Batista in Rio de Janeiro. Her funeral cortège, en route to the cemetery, was accompanied by about half a million people.
Carmen Miranda (Marco de Canaveses, 9 de Fevereiro de 1909 — Beverly Hills, 5 de Agosto de 1955) foi uma cantora e atriz.
Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha, como foi batizada na freguesia de Várzea da Ovelha, era a segunda filha do barbeiro José Maria Pinto Cunha (1887 - 1938) e de Maria Emília Miranda (1886 - 1971). Maria do Carmo, que ganhou o apelido Carmen já no Brasil graças ao gosto de José Maria por óperas. Pouco depois de seu nascimento, o pai, José Maria, emigrou para o Brasil, onde se instalou no Rio de Janeiro. Em 1910, Maria Emília seguiria o marido, acompanhada da filha mais velha e de Carmen que tinha dois anos e não mais voltaria à sua terra natal. mais
Em 20 de janeiro de 1936 estreou o filme Alô, Alô Carnaval, em que Carmen e Aurora atuam juntas na famosa seqüência em que cantam "Cantoras do Rádio". mais
Entre 1941 e 1953 Carmen atuou em 13 filmes em Hollywood e nos mais importantes programas de rádio, televisão, casas noturnas, cassinos e teatros norte-americanos. Na esteira da Política de Boa Vizinhança implementada pelos EUA em face do conflito europeu, o espaço para artistas "latinos" cresce. Carmen, apesar de ter chegado à América antes da Segunda Guerra e da criação da Política é identificada com o projeto mais
Para os brasileiros dos anos 30, ela era a "pequena notável" e para os norte-americanos da década de 40, ela era "lhe Brazilian bombsheU". a bomba brasileira, torpedo que caiu no show business americano em 1940 e fez sucesso imediato. Maior cantora do Brasil na década de 30, foi criadora de um estilo entre o alegre e o malicioso, de uma gesticulação divertida e descritiva, que a consagrou no teatro de revista e no cinema. Rainha dos carnavais, dos auditórios, intérprete de grandes sucessos como Taí, Como vai você. Mamãe eu quero, O que é que a ha i a na tem? e No tabuleiro na baiana. Depois, fez 15 anos de sucesso ininterrupto nos Hstados Unidos, principalmente no cinema e, na verdade, morreu de estafa, de tanto trabalhar. Os brasileiros ficaram magoados por ela não querer voltar e Carmem explicou em músicas que se tornaram outros sucessos: "Dizem que voltei americanizada, / com o burro do dinheiro, que estou muito rica" e alegava em sua defesa, "eu sou do camarão ensopadinho com xuxu." Outro sucesso foi Voltei pró morro. Carmem está hoje na galeria das estrelas históricas do showbiz americano. Dominou com desenvoltura todas as exigências da mídia da época: rádio, disco, teatro, cinema, televisão e publicidade
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